Between 1934 and 1941, the number of prisoners with higher education increased more than eight times, and the number of prisoners with high education increased five times. Up until World War II, the Gulag system expanded dramatically to create a Soviet "camp economy". I See You've Bought Some Western Shit, Go To Gulag Сука, Atleast Its Better Than The Gulag In Siberia, Of Course It's Not Real Communism When It's Not Convenient, My Toe Could Use A Good "rubbing", If You Catch My Drift, Childhood Ruined...part 2! As a result, the camps were essential as the nucleus of a system that destroyed individuality and dissolved all social bonds. 1944–1951 годы // История СССР.

[55], The Gulag was officially established on April 25, 1930 as the ULAG by the OGPU order 130/63 in accordance with the Sovnarkom order 22 p. 248 dated April 7, 1930.

As a rule, they were situated in remote parts of the USSR, and labor conditions were extremely hard there.

The camps housed a wide range of convicts, from petty criminals to political prisoners, large numbers of whom were convicted by simplified procedures, such as by NKVD troikas or by other instruments of extrajudicial punishment.

Under NKVD Order No.

Map of Gulag, made by the Memorial Foundation on: Vishnevsky, Alantoly.

[29] Its major function was the organization of foreign forced labor in the Soviet Union. [93], Prior to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, estimates of Gulag victims ranged from 2.3 to 17.6 million (see a History of Gulag population estimates section).

[citation needed] These included the exploitation of natural resources and the colonization of remote areas, as well as the realisation of enormous infrastructural facilities and industrial construction projects. This notorious you-eat-as-you-work system would often kill weaker prisoners in weeks and caused countless casualties. ", Barenberg, Alan, Wilson T. Bell, Sean Kinnear, Steven Maddox, and, Bell, Wilson T. 2013. [45] Among the camp prisoners, the number and share of the intelligentsia was growing at the quickest pace.

Sometimes it took several waves of colonists before any one group survived to establish the camp.

The situation slowly improved in the final period and after the end of the war. [118]:437–59, Statistical reports made by the OGPU-NKVD-MGB-MVD between the 1930s and 1950s are kept in the State Archive of the Russian Federation formerly called Central State Archive of the October Revolution (CSAOR). The institutional analysis of the Soviet concentration system is complicated by the formal distinction between GULAG and GUPVI.

Pp.

To meet rising demand, prisoners worked longer and longer hours, and on lower food-rations than ever before. [43] Convicts serving labor sentences and exiles were sent to the underpopulated areas of Siberia and the Russian Far East – regions that had few towns or food sources and lacked any organized transportation systems. The central government focused all its attention on the military, and left the camps to their own devices. The term would also become associated with anyone who opposed or even seemed unsatisfied with the Soviet government. Initially the inmates, largely Russian intelligentsia, enjoyed relative freedom (within the natural confinement of the islands). It peaked in the early 1950s, when there were more than 100 camp administrations across the Soviet Union.

One of the Gulag system founders was Naftaly Frenkel.

Naftaly Frenkel is credited for the introduction of this policy. Новосибирск, 2004, Troops in Security of Railway Infrastructure, Troops in Security of Industrial Infrastructure of Specially Importance, This page was last edited on 22 October 2020, at 21:04.

The site on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea is one of the earliest and also most noteworthy, taking root soon after the Revolution in 1918.

2006.

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