Beryllium tuff: A specimen of beryllium tuff from the Spor Mountain area of Utah. Enlarge.

Tuff can also be thickest on the downwind side The craters are known as maars and are formed by explosions caused by the contact between cold groundwater and hot magma. Welding decreases towards the top of the cooling unit, where the unit cools more rapidly. The cavities are filled with many secondary minerals, such as calcite, chlorite, quartz, epidote, or chalcedony; in microscopic sections, though, the nature of the original lava can nearly always be made out from the shapes and properties of the little crystals which occur in the decomposed glassy base.

For example, dating of zircons in a metamorphosed tuff bed in the Pilar Formation provided some of the first evidence for the Picuris orogeny. Always found as volcanic pipes over deep continental crust, Easter Island in the Polynesian Triangle, Pacific Ocean. produced by the shattering of a vesicular glass, sometimes described as

[8], Welded ignimbrites can be highly voluminous, such as the Lava Creek Tuff erupted from Yellowstone Caldera in Wyoming 631,000 years ago.

Tuff can contain fragments of dust-size particles to boulder-size particles and be composed of many different types of material.

[50], Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, a U.S. Department of Energy terminal storage facility for spent nuclear reactor and other radioactive waste, is in tuff and ignimbrite in the Basin and Range Province in Nevada. In course of time, changes other than weathering may overtake tuff deposits.

Basaltic tuffs are also of widespread occurrence both in districts where volcanoes are now active and in lands where eruptions have long since ended.

Some deposits might contain welded tuff near the vent and unwelded tuff at a distance where smaller, cooler particles fell to the ground. Occurrences of ultramafic tuff include surface deposits of kimberlite at maars in the diamond-fields of southern Africa and other regions.

In Charnwood Forest also, the tuffs are slaty and cleaved.

It’s primary economic value is as a building material. Iceland,[21] Lipari,[22] Hungary,[23] the Basin and Range of the American southwest, and New Zealand[13] are among the areas where such tuffs are prominent. [53] It is the dominant type of stone used in construction in Armenia's capital Yerevan,[54][55] Gyumri, Armenia's second largest city, and Ani, the country's medieval capital, now in Turkey.

[51] In Napa Valley and Sonoma Valley, California, areas made of tuff are routinely excavated for storage of wine barrels. Partly to densely welded vitric and vitric-crystal tuff of soda-rhyolitic, rhyolitic, and rhyodacitic composition that interfingers with and grades laterally into unit Tit. It is found that this index is useful for describing changes of rock and soil during weathering and classifying the degrees of weathering.

Most tuff formations include a range of fragment sizes and varieties. of being a "layer," a tuff is usually a "lens-shaped" deposit. In the ancient world, tuff’s relative softness meant that it was commonly used for construction where it was available.

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