The Servian Wall, built to defend the city of Rome in the fourth century BC, is also built almost entirely from tuff. Image by USGS.
 The trade name Rochlitz Porphyr is the traditional designation for a dimension stone of Saxony with an architectural history over 1,000 years in Germany. They also occur as breccias or in volcanic plugs and dikes. Tuff is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption. gray pumice fragments in white ash matrix, Tectonic Environment: The tuff ring forms as these ejected materials fall back to Earth. Convergent Boundary – Andean-type subduction zones, intracontinental hot spots Ettringer tuff: Close-up of a specimen of Ettringer Tuff showing a variety of rock fragments and tephra in a matrix of volcanic ash. At the edges of the rock used at Rome and Naples as a building stone, is a trachyte tuff. , Tuff is an igneous rock that forms from the products of an explosive volcanic eruption. They are black, dark green, or red in colour; vary greatly in coarseness, some being full of round spongy bombs a foot or more in diameter; and being often submarine, may contain shale, sandstone, grit, and other sedimentary material, and are occasionally fossiliferous. Tuff: An igneous rock that contains the debris from an explosive volcanic eruption.
This photograph shows several layers of tephra with different textures and different compositions, each from a different eruptive event.
This package in the northeastern part of the New River Belt is essentially coeval, and to some extent lithologically similar to units of rhyolite, Gravelly loam is interspersed with clay loam subsoil, and some of the land has rhyolite rock and soft, The El Tigre gold and silver deposit is related to a series of high-grade epithermal veins controlled by a north-south trending structure cutting across the andesitic and, The Talang Kecap prospect is characterised by abundant epithermal quartz vein float in streams returning assay values up to 18.6 g/t Gold, intense clay alteration of host, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Archived U-Pb (zircon) dates from southern New Brunswick, Gauer Estate is carving out hillside vineyards in Sonoma County, Oceanus Adds 4,465 Hectares to El Tigre Claim Package, Kingsrose Mining Limited (ASX:KRM) Quarterly Activities Report For The Three Months Ended 30 June 2010. They occur along the whole chain of the Cordilleras and Andes, in the West Indies, New Zealand, Japan, etc.  However, interaction between basaltic magma and groundwater or sea water results in hydromagmatic explosions that produce abundant ash. When tuff forms from a hot ash flow it can create shells around object or people.
Tuff can be classified as either igneous or sedimentary rock. It was one of the largest explosive volcanic eruptions known to have occurred. The Rapa Nui people used it to make most of the moai statues in Easter Island. bedrock and launches it into the air mixed with tephra and volcanic ash produced from the magma source below. [online] Available at: https://geologyscience.com/rocks/tuff/ [23rd October 2020 ], Economically Important Metal Concentrations in Earth’s Crust, Porphyry Deposits: General characteristics and modeling.
Among the crystalline schists of many regions, green beds or green schists occur, which consist of quartz, hornblende, chlorite or biotite, iron oxides, feldspar, etc., and are probably recrystallized or metamorphosed tuffs. Diamond Head, Hawaii, is an example of a tuff cone, as is the island of Ka'ula.
A "tuff ring" is a small volcanic cone of low relief that surrounds a shallow crater. This specimen clearly displays the diversity of materials that compose a tuff.
Beryllium tuff: A specimen of beryllium tuff from the Spor Mountain area of Utah. Enlarge.
Tuff can also be thickest on the downwind side The craters are known as maars and are formed by explosions caused by the contact between cold groundwater and hot magma. Welding decreases towards the top of the cooling unit, where the unit cools more rapidly. The cavities are filled with many secondary minerals, such as calcite, chlorite, quartz, epidote, or chalcedony; in microscopic sections, though, the nature of the original lava can nearly always be made out from the shapes and properties of the little crystals which occur in the decomposed glassy base.
For example, dating of zircons in a metamorphosed tuff bed in the Pilar Formation provided some of the first evidence for the Picuris orogeny. Always found as volcanic pipes over deep continental crust, Easter Island in the Polynesian Triangle, Pacific Ocean. produced by the shattering of a vesicular glass, sometimes described as
, Welded ignimbrites can be highly voluminous, such as the Lava Creek Tuff erupted from Yellowstone Caldera in Wyoming 631,000 years ago.
Tuff can contain fragments of dust-size particles to boulder-size particles and be composed of many different types of material.
, Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, a U.S. Department of Energy terminal storage facility for spent nuclear reactor and other radioactive waste, is in tuff and ignimbrite in the Basin and Range Province in Nevada. In course of time, changes other than weathering may overtake tuff deposits.
Basaltic tuffs are also of widespread occurrence both in districts where volcanoes are now active and in lands where eruptions have long since ended.
Some deposits might contain welded tuff near the vent and unwelded tuff at a distance where smaller, cooler particles fell to the ground. Occurrences of ultramafic tuff include surface deposits of kimberlite at maars in the diamond-fields of southern Africa and other regions.
In Charnwood Forest also, the tuffs are slaty and cleaved.
It’s primary economic value is as a building material. Iceland, Lipari, Hungary, the Basin and Range of the American southwest, and New Zealand are among the areas where such tuffs are prominent.  It is the dominant type of stone used in construction in Armenia's capital Yerevan, Gyumri, Armenia's second largest city, and Ani, the country's medieval capital, now in Turkey.
 In Napa Valley and Sonoma Valley, California, areas made of tuff are routinely excavated for storage of wine barrels. Partly to densely welded vitric and vitric-crystal tuff of soda-rhyolitic, rhyolitic, and rhyodacitic composition that interfingers with and grades laterally into unit Tit. It is found that this index is useful for describing changes of rock and soil during weathering and classifying the degrees of weathering.
Most tuff formations include a range of fragment sizes and varieties. of being a "layer," a tuff is usually a "lens-shaped" deposit. In the ancient world, tuff’s relative softness meant that it was commonly used for construction where it was available.
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