President Yanukovych's overthrow in the 2014 Ukrainian revolution led to protests in Eastern Ukraine, which gradually escalated into an armed conflict between the newly formed Ukrainian government and the local armed militias.  An insurgent car bomb killed three soldiers during the fighting there. , In a poll conducted in August 2015, with 6500 respondents from 19 cities of the Donetsk Oblast, only 29% supported the DPR and 10% considered themselves to be "Russian patriots". A spokesman for the Internal Affairs Ministry said that government forces were "clearing" Ilovaisk of insurgents, and later captured most of the city. Shells fell on the Kalininskyi district of Donetsk, and the Donbas Battalion continued to fight against the insurgents that had trapped them in Ilovaisk for days.
", "Russia Moves Artillery Units into Ukraine, NATO Says", "Ukraine Reports Russian Invasion on a New Front", "Ukraine accuses Russia of invasion after aid convoy crosses border", "Putin Claims Russia Was 'Forced To Defend Russian-Speaking Population in Donbass, "Vladimir Putin admits: Russian troops 'were in Ukraine, "Ukraine rebels: a disunited front run by warlords", "Ceasefire brings limited respite for east Ukrainians", "The Daily Vertical: Ukraine's Forgotten War (Transcript)", In Ukraine It's Beginning to Look a Lot Like Christmas, and a Lot Less Like Russia, "Kyiv says there are about 6,000 Russian soldiers, 40,000 separatists in Donbas", "Anxious Ukraine Risks Escalation In 'Creeping Offensive, "Response to Chief Observer of the Observer Mission at the Russian Border Checkpoints Gukovo and Donetsk | Statement to the PC", "The Routes Used by the Russian Army to Cross into Ukraine", The longest truce in Donbass.  OSCE monitors said they would observe the ceasefire, and assist the Ukrainian government in implementing it. The nearest insurgent artillery positions were beyond the range of this area.  The plan, similar in content to the failed Minsk Protocol, called for an unconditional ceasefire, to begin on 15 February, amongst many other measures. According to one volunteer, 37 Ukrainian troops died.  Further actions by the separatists resulted in the capture of the offices of the regional state television network on 27 April.  According to the presidential decree that introduced it, the reason for the decree was "to protect human rights and freedoms" in accordance with "the widely recognized principles of international humanitarian law.  There were also reports of factionalism among the separatists, with some desertions. , There were reports in September 2014 claiming that the Parliament of the Luhansk People's Republic adopted a law that would introduce criminal liability for homosexuality.  The cities of Dzerzhynsk, Soledar, and Rubizhne were also recaptured by government forces. , On 2 June 2017 the freelance journalist Stanislav Aseyev was abducted.  An air strike launched by the Armed Forces eventually managed to destroy the rocket launcher, but only after 23 soldiers were killed. , The Armed Forces of Ukraine are the primary military force of Ukraine, and have taken a leading role in countering DPR and LPR forces. , Mykhailo Koval, the Minister of Defence, said on 30 May that Ukrainian government forces had "completely cleared" the insurgents from the southern and western parts of Donetsk Oblast and the northern part of Luhansk Oblast. The head of the unit in question was the pro-Russian separatist commander Aleksandr Biednov, known as "Batman" (who was later killed) and the "head" of the torture chamber was a rebel called "Maniac" who "allegedly used a hammer to torture prisoners and surgery kit to scare and extract confessions from prisoners". , The Army of the South-East (Russian: Армия Юго-Востока, Armiya Yugo-Vostoka) is a pro-Russian militant group that occupied various buildings in Luhansk Oblast.
The New York Times described this result as part of "a common arc of post-Soviet conflict, visible in the Georgian enclaves of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan and in Transnistria", and said that separatist-controlled areas had become a "frozen zone", where people "live in ruins, amid a ruined ideology, in the ruins of the old empire.  Most of those polled said that direct war with Ukraine was either "absolutely impossible" or "extremely unlikely".  Minor violations of the ceasefire continued throughout March and into April, though it continued to hold, and the numbers of casualties reported by both sides were greatly reduced.  They said that the airport was "completely destroyed", and entirely unusable. Explainer: What Is The Steinmeier Formula -- And Did Zelenskiy Just Capitulate To Moscow? I came here to pay my dues to them".  But since then, it has not voted for the required second reading needed to implement the change in constitution. Манифест", "Решение о создании "Донецкой народной республики" отменено", "Ukraine forces retake Kharkiv building, pro-Russians hold out elsewhere", "Pro-Russian terrorists build barricades at Donetsk city hall", "Граждане России продолжают митинговать в Донецке за отделение Донбасса", "Latest from the Special Monitoring Mission in Ukraine - Monday, 14 April 2014", "Separatists in Donetsk decided to release several floors", "Russian Roulette: The Invasion of Ukraine (Dispatch Twenty Three)", "Донецкий сепаратист Пушилин: нас объединяет русский мир", "Putin: Troops have pulled back from Ukraine border", "Баркашов советует "впарить" Донецку итоги референдума", "Terrorist Organization Profile - START - National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism", "SBU Audio Links Donetsk Republic to Russian Involvement", "Fascism Comes to Ukraine -- From Russia", "Пленных сотрудников Альфы обменяли на трех лидеров сепаратистов - СБУ", "Marine Le Pen's Closest Advisor Comes Out of the Shadows In Donetsk", "German neo-Nazi demonstrators with a Kremlin-backed militant cause", "Ukraine says Donetsk 'anti-terror operation' under way", "Ukraine crisis: Deal to 'de-escalate' agreed in Geneva", "U.S. and Russia Agree on Pact to Defuse Ukraine Crisis", "Eastern Ukraine's Pro-Russian Activists Stand Fast", "Separatists in Ukraine Vow to Proceed With Autonomy Vote", "2 southeast Ukrainian regions to hold referendum May 11 as planned", "Russia Keeps Its Distance After Ukraine Secession Referendums", "Ukraine: Donetsk polling stations gear up for Sunday referendum", "Russia Calls for 'Civilized Implementation' of East Ukraine Referendum Results", "Donetsk People's Republic asks Moscow to consider its accession into Russia", "Ukraine rebels say they are willing to talk peace with Kiev", "Russian Rebels Seeking Total Independence from Ukraine", Truce in Ukraine violated, but holding for now, "ANALYSIS: Donetsk and Luhansk propose amendments to Ukraine's Constitution", "Ukraine conflict: Poroshenko calls for UN peacekeepers", "Russian-backed 'Novorossiya' breakaway movement collapses", "Ukraine is divided over constitutional reform", "Ukraine's parliament avoids implementation of Minsk agreements", "Ex-Professor Upsets Ukraine Politics, and Russia Peace Accord", "Separatists Launch New "Passportization" Strategy in Eastern Ukraine", "Pro-Russian rebel leader killed in eastern Ukraine blast", "Prominent rebel warlord Arseny 'Motorola' Pavlov dies in Donetsk blast", "Separatist commander Mikhail Tolstykh, 'Givi', killed in eastern Ukraine", "How relations between Ukraine and Russia should look like?  They said that they would use force if needed to defend the building from "criminals and terrorists".  Meanwhile, fighting in Luhansk resulted in the loss of electrical power and water services across the city. Whereas Ukrainian forces had been losing about 100 men per day prior to the Protocol, only about 200 had been killed in the four months since its signing. Fighting was concentrated in the northwestern districts of Kyivskyi and Kuibyshevskyi, and also near the central railway station and airport, leading local residents to seek refuge in bomb shelters, or to flee the city. As fighting between separatists and the Ukrainian government worsened in Donbass, membership rose to 350, and later to 4,000. , A group of masked pro-Russian militants under the command of a retired FSB officer Igor Girkin took control of the city administration building, police offices, and SBU building in Sloviansk, a city in the northern part of Donetsk Oblast, on 12 April.  Russian forces had mobilised within 10 kilometres (6 1⁄4 mi) of the Ukrainian border.
Involved parties agreed to a new ceasefire, called Minsk II, on 12 February 2015. , Ukraine launched a military counter-offensive against pro-Russian forces in April 2014, called the "Anti-Terrorist Operation" (ATO) from 2014 until 2018, when it was renamed the "Joint Forces Operation" (JFO).  This disaster followed two similar incidents earlier in the week, when two Ukrainian Air Force planes were shot down. One was scheduled for 11 May, and was meant to determine whether the region would seek greater autonomy (and potentially independence), or retain its previous constitutional status within Ukraine. These demonstrations, which followed the February–March 2014 annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, and which were part of a wider group of concurrent protests across southern and eastern Ukraine, escalated into an armed conflict between the separatist forces of the self-declared Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics (DPR and LPR respectively), and the Ukrainian government.  As Ukrainian and DPR forces fought away from the airport, a group of insurgents stormed the first and third floors of the new terminal building.
, A 2015 paper released by the Royal United Services Institute and a 2017 report by the RAND Corporation document how the conflict evolved from a localised proxy conflict in its early stages to a hybrid war between Russian and Ukraine, and then to a limited conventional war with the August 2014 direct invasion by Russian troops.  These incidents led President Turchynov to disband the 25th Airborne Brigade.  He said his unit was formed during the Crimean crisis, and that two-thirds of its members were Ukrainian citizens.  Insurgents confirmed that they had obtained three tanks, but leaders refused to elaborate on how they acquired them; one militant told reporters that they originated "from a military warehouse". , In September 2015, OSCE published a report on the testimonies of victims held in places of illegal detention in Donbass.
 Anti-government demonstrators said that government forces had used a "toxic gas" during the operation, resulting in injuries when the demonstrators tried to re-occupy the building after the National Guard withdrew.  Approximately 435,000 of the republic's population live in Luhansk, where the republic has its administration.  Following the Ukrainian defeat at Debaltseve, the parties to the conflict signed the Minsk II agreement to end the fighting on 15 February 2015. The current head of state is Denis Pushilin. The proto-state is recognised only by the partially recognised South Ossetia and Russian-backed proto-state Luhansk People's Republic (LPR).  Five members of the Donbas Battalion were killed, along with four separatists. Ukrainian officials in Mariupol said that the situation there "was worsening by the hour", and that there was an imminent danger of an attack on the city.  Ukrainian president Petro Poroshenko said that Ukrainian artillery engaged and destroyed a "significant" portion of the armoured column.
, On 19 April 2016, planned (organised by the LPR) local elections were postponed from 24 April to 24 July 2016.
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